Constitution of India: Know what are the features of the Constitution of India, read here...
Constitution of India: After a long struggle for freedom, the people of India have made a separate constitution of their own, which is the largest constitution in the world. Different parts of this constitution have been taken from different countries. Because of this, it is a mixture of many famous constitutions of the world. Many such features in our constitution make it different from other constitutions. Let us know about the features of our constitution.
World's longest-written constitution
Any constitution is divided into 2 parts written constitution and an unwritten constitution. The constitution of America and India is written constitution while the constitution of Britain is unwritten. The Constitution of India is the largest written constitution in the world. The Constitution of India originally had 395 Articles, 22 Parts, and 8 Schedules, whereas at present, after several amendments, it has 25 Parts, 12 Schedules, and 470 Articles. It is worth mentioning that no other constitution of the world has so many articles and schedules. There are mainly 4 main reasons behind making the Constitution of India so big:
1. India's immense geographical extent and diversity
2. Historicity means many earlier articles have been included in the constitution due to which it has become very detailed. Example- Government of India Act 1935
3. There is only one constitution for all the states and union territories.
4. A large number of law experts and lawyers were present in the Constituent Assembly.
Combination of flexibility and inflexibility
Constitutions are of two types, flexible and inflexible. An inflexible constitution means a rigid constitution is a constitution in which one has to go through a rigorous process to make amendments. Example US Constitution. And flexible constitutions are those which do not require any special procedure for an amendment like the constitution of Britain. The Constitution of India is a mixture of rigidity and flexibility, that is, some of its provisions can be ratified by special procedures such as a two-thirds majority of members present and voting in both houses and a majority of MPs present in each house, some by a special majority of Parliament and more than half Can be amended only with the approval of the states while some other provisions can be amended only through the normal process.
The constitution has given a federal system of government which is unitary with some changes. Federation means equal rights have been given to the state and union such as separate governments in center and state, equal division of powers, written constitution, an independent judiciary, bicameral system, etc. whereas there are some provisions which make the union more supreme like - A strong center, one constitution, single citizenship, integrated judiciary in the form of Supreme Court, appointment of governor by the center, etc.
Parliamentary form of government:
The presidential form of government has been adopted in the Constitution of India. That is, the presence of real and nominal work parents, the power of the majority party, the legislature, that is, the joint accountability of the executive, that is, the Council of Ministers towards the Parliament, the membership of ministers in the legislature, that is, before a person becomes a minister or after 6 months in any one House It is mandatory to be a member of Rajya Sabha or Lok Sabha, as well as the leadership of the Council of Ministers by the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister, the leadership of the lower house. It is clear from the above characteristics that there is a parliamentary form of government in India which has been taken from Britain whereas in America there is a presidential form of government. The parliamentary system is also called the Westminster form.
Integrated and Independent Judiciary:
The Constitution of India provides for the formation of an independent and integrated judiciary. In India's judicial system, the place of the Supreme Court is at the top, below it is the High Courts of various states and below that are the District Courts. The Supreme Court is the top court of the country and it guarantees the protection of fundamental rights to the citizens of the country. Many provisions have been made in the constitution for the independence of the Supreme Court, such as the security of the tenure of the judges here, the service conditions fixed for them, all the expenses of the Supreme Court are based on the accumulated fund, etc.
Various sources of the constitution:
The provisions of the Constitution of India have been taken from different countries but a major part of the Constitution has been taken from the Government of India Act 1935, while the Fundamental Rights have been taken from the United States and the Fundamental Duties from Ireland. Other provisions of the constitution have been taken from countries like Germany, Japan, South Africa, Canada, etc.